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Cyanoacrylates are a family of strong fast-acting adhesives with industrial, medical, and household uses.

Cyanoacrylate adhesives have a short shelf life if not used, about one year from manufacture if unopened, one month once opened. Cyanoacrylates include methyl 2-cyanoacrylate, ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (commonly sold under trade names such as "Super Glue" and "Krazy Glue"), n-butyl cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (used in medical, veterinary and first aid applications).

as an outgrowth of a search for materials suitable for clear plastic gun sights for the war effort.

In 1942, a team of scientists headed by Harry Coover Jr.

stumbled upon a formulation that stuck to everything with which it came in contact.

The team quickly rejected the substance for the wartime application, but in 1951, while working as researchers for Eastman Kodak, Coover and a colleague, Fred Joyner, rediscovered cyanoacrylates.

Studies on three-dimensional tissue engineered graft (3DTEG) have attracted great interest among researchers as they present a means to meet the pressing clinical demand for tissue engineering scaffolds.

To explore the feasibility of 3DTEG, high porosity poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) was obtained via the co-electrospinning of polyethylene glycol and PCL, and used to construct small-diameter poly-ε-caprolactone–lysine (PCL–LYS–H) scaffolds, whereby heparin was anchored to the scaffold surface by lysine groups.A variety of small-diameter 3DTEG models were constructed with different PCL layers and the mechanical properties of the resulting constructs were evaluated in order to select the best model for 3DTEGs.Bone marrow mononuclear cells were induced and differentiated to endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs).A 3DTEG (labeled ‘10-4 %’) was successfully produced by the dynamic co-culture of ECs on the PCL–LYS–H scaffolds and SMCs on PCL.The fluorescently labeled cells on the 3DTEG were subsequently observed by laser confocal microscopy, which showed that the ECs and SMCs were embedded in the 3DTEG.Nitric oxide and endothelial nitric oxide synthase assays showed that the ECs behaved normally in the 3DTEG.

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